If you manage to anger the gods, I believe theres a 36 hour period before you can pray again without agitating the gods even further. Also, as your wisdom improves along the game, you gain more favour with the gods every time you pray, meaning that you can start praying to more gods. AFAIK it should be possible to pray to AT LEAST 5 gods a game, as long as they are next to each other. Take for example that you are praying to Mellis; this means that every time you pray to him you gain favour with him and the 2 gods aligned next to him(Loricatus and Silva). You won't lose favour with cleptia or sophos, so its also possible to pray to them, but only if you have high enough wisdom (recommend at least 30 or so) so that the favour you get from praying to sophos and cleptia dont cancel each other out, in which case they would end up hating you. If you get your wisdom high enough through SCITalking and then getting it ridiculously high through dolphins im pretty sure you could pray to at least all the lawful or evil gods and then the neutral ones.
Anyways, hope this post was at least somewhat helpful and sorry for the mess, quite tired at the moment